Forthcoming articles Social Evolution & History

These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.

Stephen A. Kowalewski (University of Georgia, Athens)

Economic Institutions in Ancient Greece and Mesoamerica


New studies have led to deeper comprehension of economic variation and change in Late Postclassic Mesoamerica and the Archaic and Classical Greek world. Archaeological data on city-state settlement patterns, specialized production, trade, and household consumption, new archival material, and re-analysis of texts, have undermined primitivism, substantivism, and ideal-types.

In urbanization and demographic scale the two areas are comparable. Mesoamerican and Greek agricultural production was not simply for subsistence, but was market-oriented and market-dependent. Local and long-distance trade often functioned by market mechanisms. The economies had the capacity for real growth.

There are two major differences. The Old World used state-issued coinage as money; Mesoamerica had goods monies. In the Old World the firm, or corporate group for carrying out economic activities, was sometimes larger than in Mesoamerica, where the household was the locus of specialized production. These differences had consequences in the relative capacity for accumulation, appropriation, and inequality.

Felix O. Olatunji and Anthony Bature

The Inadequacy of Post-Development Theory to the Discourse of Development and Social Order in the Global South


Post-development theorists argue that certain characteristic “Western” ways of talking about and representing the non-West should be understood as ideological projections rather than as scientific knowledge about people and places elsewhere. To these theorists, the ways of conceiving and representing development that are closely bound to the North’s development agencies and programmes reveal more about the self-affirming ideologies of the Global North than insights into the peoples of the rest of the world. In addition, post-development scholars take the position that development has less to do with human improvement and more to do with human control and domination.

This theory suggests that societies at the local level should be allowed to pursue their own development as they perceive it without the influences of global capital and other modern choices, and thus a rejection of the entire paradigm from Eurocentric model and the advocation of new ways of thinking about non-Western societies. However, this model for development among societies of the Global South especially Africa, is insufficient for development because it is a kind of cultural relativism, which is capable of veering into fundamentalism and does not allow for mutual borrowing.

The thrust of this study lies basically in presenting that a combination of cultural knowledge and Western development theories through an adaptation of post-development model is needed for development and social order in Africa. This means that an all-inclusive model encapsulating life promotion and centred on man should be adopted as a model of development for Africa.

Andrey Korotayev (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow), Svetlana Borinskaya (Vavilov Institute of General Genetics and Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow and St Petersburg) and George Starostin (Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow)

Evolution of Eurasian and African Family Systems, Cross-Cultural Research, Comparative Linguistics, and Deep History


Currently, the main source for the reconstruction of the most ancient history of humankind is archeology, which almost by definition makes it possible to restore only just a few elements of the most ancient human culture (naturally, almost exclusively – material culture). A mere introduction of comparative linguistic data makes it possible to significantly refine our reconstruction of a respective culture. If a certain linguistic Urheimat may be localized in space and in time within the area and lifespan of a certain archaeological culture, this suggests that we may have an idea of the language spoken by respective population, as the application of comparative linguistic methods allows us to reconstruct the vocabulary of the carriers of the respective protolanguage, that makes it possible to identify a set of terms denoting the realities of family organization, political attitudes, beliefs, etc. A very important part of the reconstructed vocabulary is constituted by the kinship terminology. As is well known (and as is demonstrated in this article again), the kinship terminology displays rather strong correlations with respective types of kinship organization, which could allow to reconstruct important features of clan and family structure of the respective populations. This reconstruction can be further verified by using archaeological and genetic data. It is demonstrated that the papers presented at the International Workshop “Murdock and Goody Re-visited: (Pre)history and evolution of Eurasian and African family systems” that was organized in April 2015 by the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology suggest that we are close to having all the necessary ingredients to undertake such a program of a deep historical reconstruction.

Sergey Shulgin (Lomonosov Moscow State University), Julia Zinkina (Lomonosov Moscow State University), and Alexey Andreev (Lomonosov Moscow State University)

Measuring Globalization: Network Approach to Countries' Global Connectivity Rates and Their Evolution in Time


Traditional approaches to measuring countries' levels of globalization mostly rely on index compilation. This paper presents a new method of estimating the countries' global connectivity rates based on the degree of their involvement into the global networks of transborder flows and relations. We apply the concept of k-core from network analysis to estimate the level of countries' involvement into global networks. Changes in the countries' structural positions within these networks affect their overall connectivity rankings. In our analysis we take into account four types of networks, such as trade in goods, trade in services, foreign direct investment, and migration. However, the method easily allows for adding other networks (when sufficient data is available).

Victoria Rostovtseva (Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences), Marina Butovskaya (Moscow State University, the National Research University High School of Economics, Moscow), and Ruzan Mkrtchjan (Erevan University, Erevan)

2d:4d, Big Fives and Aggression in Young Men of Caucasian, Ural and Asian Origin


According to modern views on human bio-sociality, Big five personality traits have been shaped in the process of human evolution and their expression is an outcome of the complex interaction of prenatal predispositions and cultural environment. Present study investigates the impact of prenatal and rogenization and cultural norms on the personality traits in adult men from four ethnic groups living on the territory of Russian Federation. The study was conducted on 263 young men (age range 17–30years), including Russians, Armenians, Ob-Ugric and Buryats. The results revealed significant population differences in 2D:4D ratios on both hands, with lowest ratios for Asian sample, increasing in populations to the West. Significant ethnic differences were found for Openness to New Experience, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism. Positive association between 2D:4D ratios on the right hand and Agreeableness in men with no respect to population origin was detected. This relationship becomes stronger, when controlling for aggressiveness.

Andrea Komlosy and Hannes Hofbauer

Peripheralization and Catching Up in Eastern Europe in Historical Perspective


According to the specialization in Western Sciences and of Western Scientists, Eastern European History represents a specific discipline, with a strong regional focus. This specialization allows carrying out specific and specialized research. However, it risks loosinglosing the connection with the rest of Europe and the rest of the world, although Eastern Europe has had a long tradition of inter-regional interaction with other world regions. While Western particularities became universalized, developments in Eastern Europe are put on a different agenda: They deserve interest and research, but only as a particular problem, which does not follow the general pattern of development.

Ihor V. Rymar (M. P. Dragomanov National Pedagogical University, Kyiv)

Precession of simulacrums of the Great Terror and Dissolution of the Communist Party of Poland (1936–1938)


The purpose of this article is to analyze quite a complex and versatile phenomenon of the Great Terror of 1936–1938 and the dissolution of the Communist Party of Poland (CPP) through the prism of the French philosopher Jean Baudrillard's postmodernist concept of a simulacrum. Using some of Baudrillard's basic concepts of simulacrum and dissuasion and also on the basis of published archival documents and monographic studies related to this period, we characterize one of the major tools of terror – ‘the purge’; we also study the process of deployment of the Great Terror, the involvement of the Third International and foreign Communists in Moscow, in the process of repression and ‘purge’. We also make an attempt to find out through the prism of the postmodernist approach the reasons for the elimination of the CPP ruling elite that stayed in Moscow and for the complete dissolution of the party which was a part of the Third International from the moment of its uprising. The obtained results allow expanding the existing field of interpretations and explanations of the causes and motives of the Great Terror, and the place the Third International and the CPP used to occupy in this process.

Ivaylo Hristov

Neo-Ottomanism – Emergence, Ideology and Political Doctrine


This paper aims to examine the conceptual platform and political doctrines of neo-Ottomanism. In particular, the text aims to study the essence and positioning of neo-Ottomanism, its emergence and gradual assertion against the backdrop of the Turkish elite's doctrines that have taken shape throughout history, mostly at the contemporary stage of the decline of the Kemalist ideology. The paper holds the view that neo-Ottomanism is the validating ideology and policy of the new class of entrepreneurship in Turkey, which since the end of Cold War I has been relying on its new economic power, accumulated capital and military supremacy in the region in its attempt to expand its role in international relations. This policy is an attempt to combine values that are incompatible in essence, character and content. In particular, this means that the new ideology, which revives Islamism, aims to get incorporated within the political system of the secular state, and the final result is the Islamization of statehood; the ideology of neo-Ottomanism adheres to the Kemalist slogan of ‘zero problems’ with the neighbouring states, yet from the perspective of ‘strategic depth’, it inevitably leads to a political and possibly military expansion, which in turn ultimately gives rise to the contemporary form of revanchism (foreign policy aimed at revenge and regaining lost territories); the neo-Ottomanist ideology adheres to its ‘Western orientation’, displaying its aspirations at freeing Turkey from its dependence on the United States, which basically constitutes a claim for taking on the role of a global leader.

Martin Hewson

Discontinuism and Its Discontents


Discontinuism is an approach to thinking about macrohistory and large-scale change. This essay analyses and evaluates it, the first sustained investigation of discontinuism. Two forms or models of discontinuism are distinguished: a strong and a moderate version. It is proposed that the strong discontinuist model of history emphasizes the recency, shallow – roots, sudden appearance, distinctness, and likely impersistence of core features of the contemporary world. Examples of strong discontinuism are discussed in classical thought as well in relation to recent thinking about the macrohistory of nations, territoriality, the great divergence or rise of the West, and the international system. It is argued that strong discontinuism is flawed and untenable but moderate discontinuism is viable.

Gleb V. Aleksandrov (Institute for US and Canada Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences; researcher, International Center of Anthropology, National Research University – Higher School of Economics, Moscow)

Native Relations in Early British North America and the Emergence of Imperial Ideas


The article deals with the early evolution of concepts crucial for the development of the British imperial mythology. The author focuses on the emergence of the ‘agricultural argument’ for appropriating native lands and on the changing perceptions of civility. While the origins of the ‘agricultural argument’ in the works of early colonial propagandists are obvious, the author argues that those early ideas were not defined enough to serve the purposes of the colonial expansion, and the shift towards a more practical interpretation happened in the context of native-colonial relations. The concept of civility took on new meaning in the colonies, much more similar to the later imperial idea. The author emphasizes the impact of the colonial experience on this ideological evolution.

Anton O. Zakharov (Institute of Oriental Studies, Moscow)

State Formation in the First Millennium Southeast Asia: A Reappraisal


The paper analyses the characteristic features of the emerging ‘Indianized’, or ‘Indic’ kingdoms in Southeast Asia. The paper traces the connections between the power structures and various forms of violence, including warfare. The main sources are inscriptions in Sanskrit, Old Malay, Old Javanese, and Old Khmer. State formation is viewed as the formation of power structures, institutions, and arrangements. Contrary to current scholarly convention stated by Michael Vickery and Dougald O'’Reilly that the decisive step to territorial states in Southeast Asia is the origin of the Angkor Empire in 802, the author supposes that the seventh century was crucial for the formation of the territorial policies. The inscriptions of the seventh century issued by the kings of Srivijaya, Chenla (Zhenla), and Campā, do mention territorial units inside the whole kingdom.

Ken Baskin

Religion as the Process Driving Social Evolution


For the purposes of this essay, we can think of religion as the human response to the often-unconscious realization that our lives, as individuals and in community, are frequently overwhelmed by forces we cannot control. Within this framework, myth becomes the stories about how to know and participate in those forces, and ritual becomes the way communities grapple with such forces and maintain the coherence they need to survive. Looking back through the history of the evolution of life, one can see how myth and ritual emerged as survival mechanisms that reflect the accidents of humanity’s evolution over the last five million years. One can also see how, as the union of myth and ritual, religion would become the key to human adaptation to increasing social complexity, as communities grew from bands of 20 to cities of 20 million.

Konrad Szocik

What is Right and What is Wrong in the Darwinian Approach to the Study of Religion


One of the greatest challenges for the study of cultural evolution is an explanation of processes and mechanisms of transmission of cultural traits. Darwinian approach is a promising and useful research program. However, it is worth to ask in what extent Darwinian account can provide appropriate and reliable explanation for origin and transmission of religious components. We can look for biological benefits provided by religious affiliation when we try to explain it in terms of survival and reproduction. However, biological evolutionary explanation cannot explain ultimately some unique human traits like religiosity. The focal point is if this approach can provide reliable explanation for specifically human cultural phenomena that only analogically can be found among some social animals. The key idea of this paper is that Darwinian approach to religion might explain only small part of human religiosity, and reliable explanation should combine Darwinian and cultural evolution, and cognitive account.

Ivan Savelev (Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M. V. Lomonosov)

Patterns in the Adoption of Russian National Traditions by Alaskan Natives


During the past two and a half centuries, the traditions and culture of the native people of Alaska has been affected first by Russian, then by Anglo-American culture. The traces of Russian influence can be observed even now, 150 years after cession of this territory to the US, as verified by the expeditions of Russian America Heritage Project documenting sustained Russian influence, religious in the first place. At the initial stage of exploration of Russian America, influence was predominantly exercised though taking of amanats (hostages) resulting in close contacts between the Russian fur hunters and the representatives of native population. In contrast to Siberia, where this practice originated, Alaskan amanats were treated quite kindly and passed the Russian customs and traditions to their kin. After Russian American Company was established, Orthodox Christianity and the Russian Orthodox Church took over as the primary bearer of the Russian cultural traditions with the men of faith acting as advocates of the native population in the colonial administration among other things. The Russian Orthodox Church retained its authority and influence, as well as its role of the mediator between the civilization, even after cession of Alaska.

Eduard E. Shults (Center of Political and Social Technologies)

On Classification of Revolutions: An Attempt at a New Approach


The article addresses one of the fundamental issues in the theory of revolution – the problem of classification of revolutions. The existing approaches distinguish between revolutions depending on their self-proclaimed mission theory (formational, modernization, civilizational) and specific features – alleged driving forces, ideological vector, etc. The author proposes to invoke the phenomenon itself in

systematization, rather than the theoretical basis that this phenomenon should correspond to. From our point of view, a comparative analysis of revolutions based on their algorithm allows to determine their sort and type. We are proposing an approach to comparative analysis of revolutions that is founded on two criteria related to the subject of research, namely, the revolution’s algorithm (stages, phases, the vector of development) and the problems it resolves. Based on these principles, the author concludes that there are two sorts of revolutions, each of which is further subdivided into two types.

Elena S. Ustinovich (Southwest State University, Russiаn Federation) and Ilya V. Tyurin (Gubkin Russian State University of oil and gas, Russiаn Federation)

The Development of Information Policy of the Russian Empire During the Reign of Alexander II


During this historical period, the process of interaction and interdependence ofthe state power development and social consciousness was actively carried out within the limits of formation of the stateinformation policy. Alexander II and his inner circle, taking into account these trends and evaluating the shortcomings ofthe reign of his father, after years of ignoring the power of public opinion on important socio-political andsocio-economic issues, after a long prohibition on open discussion of the shortcomings of the actions of theauthorities and of the state apparatus, deliberately stimulated the beginning of “the age of conviction”.Growth of social consciousness was being observed; the press had naturally gained a strong influence on representatives of theRussian society and contributed to raising awareness and defense of their rights. The authority committing to the advancement of social development, directed itself to the expansion of mass media freedom andto the settlement of socio-political issues through the dialogue, carried out with the assistance of the media.

Terry Stocker and Jianyi Xiao

Early State Formation: A Complete Rejection of the Circumscription Theory


We evaluated Carneiro’s “environmental circumscription” theory and completely rejected it. It was an insidious ethnocentric prima facie construct. Attempting to develop a viable alternative to early state formation, we focused on food procurement, production and storage. Obviously, large population aggregates (characterizing a state by archaeologists) was only possible because they were in areas of unique abundant wild/renewable food resources, supplemented with agriculture in varying degrees of development. All earliest states followed a pattern of being located near a river mouth entering a sea or ocean. Thus we propose that such areas produced large amounts of aquatic fauna (mainly fish) and sometimes flora, and these renewable resources helped support sizeable human populations. We label our theory: Unique Resource Constellation Theory (URCT).

Maria A. Balabanova (Volgograd State University)

Reconsidering the Issue of Eastern Migrations in Connection with the Artificial Cranial Deformation Practices among the Late Sarmatians


The article is devoted to the custom of the artificial deformation of skull which was practiced by early nomads of the late Sarmatian time in a steppe zone of Eastern Europe. The issues of spread, origin and functional load of this custom are being resolved on the base of the mass paleoanthropological material from the burial mounds of the Southern Urals, the Lower Volga and the Lower Don region.

The material has shown that the proportion of deformed skulls varies from 50% to 100% and the complex dating, where the material with the deformation marks comes from, has shown that gradual penetration did not take place in the late Sarmatian society. The custom and the other cultural features might have acquired somewhere on the side and it is difficult to define the region of location.

Due to the fact that the late Sarmatian society had the specific features, for example, children were not buried under the mounds and only part of women had this kind of privilege and also the high injury level of the skeletons caused by hostilities, it is possible to consider that the custom of the artificial deformation was the constant symbol of intra-group solidarity and inter-group cultural differences. It is not possible to exclude the connection between the practice of deformation and such phenomena as fashion and esthetics, since a large number of settled and nomadic tribes practiced this custom along with the late Sarmatians.

Hung Chung Fun Steven

Historical Comparative Analysis of the Development and Transformation of Lei Yue Mun and Cha Kwo Ling with their Tin Hau Temples


Today, Lei Yue Mun and Cha Kwo Ling are still in the nearby urban areas and the urban fringe areas respectively. They are squatter areas and both suffer from environmental hygiene problems and lack proper management. The historical development of Cha Kwo Ling exerted superiority in the long-term. When it is compared with Lei Yue Mun, its economic, societal and cultural developments performed better than the latter one. Therefore, the administrative-governed centers, namely the 'Communal Office of the Four Hills' and the 'Communal School of the Four Hills' were developed in Cha Kwo Ling. After the Second World War, the place, Cha Kwo Ling, had some nearby local developments. For example, oil depots and quarry sites were located next to it. These made Cha Kwo Ling become even more prosperous. Such statement can be strengthened by the massive and spectacular occasion of the 'Tin Hau Festival'. This grand event, is the most popular and of the largest-scale in the urban area. Coincidentally, Lei Yue Mun underwent transformations in the 1960s. It became a tourist hot spot for eating seafood. Up to now it is internationally famous hence maintaining its prosperity. In contrast, the economic development of Cha Kwo Ling started to deteriorate because of urban developments. But there is a sharp difference if residents' sentiments are taken into account. With the successful economic developments in Lei Yue Mun, residents become more cold-blooded and are snobbish. This is a total opposite reflection of the social relationship in Cha Kwo Ling - residents are warm-blooded, they are passionate and are always of mutual help and care. Such extent cannot be compared with the situation in Lei Yue Mun.

Víctor Mauricio Brangier Peñailillo (Universidad Bernardo O´Higgins, Chile)

Justice in Hispanic America: the case of the social uses of judicial competence in Chile, 1825–1875


In the context of the intense litigiousness of the colonial period and the nineteenth-century in Hispanic-America, this article problematizes social evaluations of and attitudes towards republican judicial design. It presents original research on the case of a rural area in South-Central Chile, during the reorganization of the competences of local judges. 85 trials were examined for interpersonal conflicts between middle and lower-middle class residents; this data

was analyzed for the social uses of competences in the new judicial organization. Drawing on the theoretical approach of ‘jurisdictional power,’ this study demonstrates the social evolution of a know-how within the judiciary to adapt to its new organizational design, the increasing recourse to professional judges, and the permissiveness of judges towards social transgressions of judicial competence. The article concludes that the validity and tensions within social evaluations of accessibility to justice are part of an inheritance of a long regional political culture.

Henri J.M. Claessen (Leiden University)

Neandertals – Life, Work, Vanishing

Between 250.000 and 35.000 years B.C. the Neandertals lived in great parts of Europe, Africa and West-Asia (maps in Jaubert 1999: 20-21, 55; Fagan 1998: 98). During this long period of time Ice Ages alternated with periods of relative warmth. Large regions sometimes were covered with ice – the Glacials -, and had a Mediterranean climate – the Interglacials - at other times. Evidently these large climatic differences deeply influenced the life of the Neandertals. During the Ice Ages one met here mammoths and polar foxes, and during the warmer periods horses and deer roamed around in large herds. The implication of these differences is that it is not possible to make easy generalizations about the life of Neandertals.

M.L. Butovskaya, V.N. Burkova, and D.V. Karelin

Does the friendship matters? Sharing, fairness and parochial altruism in African children and adolescents


In this paper we presents data about altruistic behavior among rural Meru and urban mixt-ethnic children of Dar-es-Salaam of Tanzania, based on their decision-making in three sets of sharing games. Particularly, we examine readiness of rural and urban African schoolchildren to take prosocial, sharing and fairness decisions, to reveal to what extant these decisions are congruent in direction of friends and anonymous peers, and to test the gender differences in the decision-making. Our results provide another confirmation of the parochial altruism hypothesis.